olleges and Universities and Open Access Initiatives

Since 2004, the Ranking Web is published twice a year (January and July), covering more than 20,000 Higher Education Institutions worldwide. We intend to motivate both institutions and scholars to have a web presence that reflect accurately their activities. If the web performance of an institution is below the expected position according to their academic excellence, university authorities should reconsider their web policy, promoting substantial increases of the volume and quality of their electronic publications. If you need further clarification regarding the motivations of the Ranking or the methodology, please read the FAQ.
     If your university appears on the Directory, but it is not included in the Ranking, please consider to make a strong effort to increase the number of international academic quality web pages at your website. If you think there is a mistake, you can contact us.
     The section Premier League (Excel Files) is the repository of the current and previous editions� excel files (xls) for the Top 500 that can be used freely citing the source. We do not provide larger, or previous years files and we do not answer commercial or anonymous requests.
Info about the new July edition
Over 20,000 Higher Education Institutions have been analyzed for this edition, including full revisions of US community colleges and new universities from Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Egypt and Jordan. We have increased the number of published institutions to cover the Top 12,000 as ranks beyond that position are not meaningful enough.
Please take into account the following facts about criteria for inclusion and methodology:
  • Only universities with an independent domain are considered. If one institution has more than one main domain, we analyze all of them but only the best ranked is published, even if this domain is not the new (current) or the preferred one.
  • Since 2009 the ranking is derived from a composite indicator of the normalized values of each variable, not from the ordinals. These individual ranks are provided mainly for reference.
  • Strong discrepancies among variables, especially those regarding the Google Scholar figures, concerned us deeply. Some adjustments have been done in several instances.
  • One university has been excluded due to bad practices that make impossible a correct calculation of its rank.
  • The Bing engine showed an irregular behavior during the period of data harvesting, so it has been excluded temporarily from the present calculations.
  • In the last editions a few cases were manipulated to better reflect the overall web performance of the universities. The ranks of the institutions with many and important faculty web domains were obtained merging the data from all of them. As no improvement in the naming practices has been observed, most of these universities are now ranked only with the data obtained for their central web domain.
  • Please check the Notes section for explanation of the asterisks.
International Workshop on University Web Rankings 2010 cancelled
     The Third edition of the International Workshop that was going to be held in Granada (Spain) on the October 22nd has been cancelled.
Insufficient commitment to Open Access
     The table shows one of the reasons why the British universities (provided as example) are lagging behind in Webometrics ranking. See the full story.
Universities Scopus Scholar
University College London 134,950 8,660
University of Cambridge 114,339 8,320
University of Oxford 99,723 7,800
Imperial College 91,537 4,720
University of Manchester 83,024 3,840


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Degree ceremony at the University of Oxford. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor in MA gown and hood, Proctor in official dress and new Doctors of Philosophy in scarlet full dress. Behind them, a bedel, a Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine graduate.
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars." [1]

[edit] History

[edit] Definition

Representation of a university class in the 1350s
The original Latin word "universitas" was used at the time of emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, to describe specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located."[2] The original Latin word referred to degree-granting institutions of learning in Western Europe, where this form of legal organization was prevalent, and from where the institution spread around the world. For non-related educational institutions of antiquity which did not stand in the tradition of the university and to which the term is only loosely and retrospectively applied, see ancient centers of higher learning.

[edit] Academic freedom

An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes early in the life of the first university. Socks university adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita,[3] in 1158 or 1155,[4] which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom".[5] This is now widely recognised internationally, when on 18 September 1988 430 University Rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum,[6] marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation. The number of Universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world.

[edit] Medieval universities

The University of Salamanca in Spain, founded 1218
Prior to their formal establishment, many medieval universities were run for hundreds of years as Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD.[7] The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the western church, usually as cathedral schools or by papal bull as studia generali (n.b. The development of cathedral schools into universities actually appears to be quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception — see Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities), later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University in Krakow) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.
The first universities in Europe were the University of Bologna (1088), the University of Paris (c. 1150, later associated with the Sorbonne), the University of Oxford (1167), the University of Palencia (1208), the University of Cambridge (1209), the University of Salamanca (1218), the University of Montpellier (1220), the University of Padua (1222), the University of Naples Federico II (1224), the University of Toulouse (1229).[8][9] The Church was responsible for the development of a lot of medieval universities in Western Europe.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church. Bologna’s special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum is based on its autonomy, its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution[4] independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.[10][11]
The conventional date of 1088, or 1087 according to some,[12] records when a certain Irnerius commences teaching Emperor Justinian’s 6th century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Iuris Civilis, recently discovered at Pisa. Lay students arrive in the city from many lands contracting to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into ‘Learning Nations’ of Hungarians, Greeks, North Africans, Arabs, Franks, Germans, Iberians etc. The students “had all the power…and dominated the masters”.[13][14]
In Europe, young men proceeded to university when they had completed their study of the trivium–the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic or logic–and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. (See Degrees of the University of Oxford for the history of how the trivium and quadrivium developed in relation to degrees, especially in anglophone universities).
Although the university is widely regarded as "the European institution par excellence" in terms of its origins and characteristics,[15] some scholars have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the religious Madrasah schools in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Middle East (during the Crusades).[16] Other scholars oppose this view[17] and argue that there is no actual evidence of the transmission of Arab scholarly methods discernible in medieval universities.[18]

[edit] Modern universities

The tower of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university
The end of the medieval period marked the beginning of the transformation of universities that would eventually result in the modern research university. Many external influences, such as eras of humanism, Enlightenment, Reformation and Revolution, shaped research universities during their development.
By the 18th century, universities published their own research journals and by the 19th century, the German and the French university models had arisen. The German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt and based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to the importance of freedom, seminars, and laboratories in universities.[citation needed] The French university model involved strict discipline and control over every aspect of the university.
Until the 19th century, religion played a significant role in university curriculum; however, the role of religion in research universities decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of the 19th century, the German university model had spread around the world. Universities concentrated on science in the 19th and 20th centuries and became increasingly accessible to the masses. In Britain the move from industrial revolution to modernity saw the arrival of new civic universities with an emphasis on science and engineering, a movement initiated in 1960 by Sir Keith Murray (chairman of the University Grants Committee) and Sir Samuel Curran, with the formation of the University of Strathclyde.[19] The British also established universities worldwide, and higher education became available to the masses not only in Europe. In a general sense, the basic structure and aims of universities have remained constant over the years.[20]

[edit] National universities

A national university is generally a university created or run by a national state but at the same time represent a state autonomic institutions which functions as a completely independent body inside of the same state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations, for instance the National University of Ireland in the early days of Irish independence collected a large amount of information on the Irish language and Irish culture. In revolutions in Argentina were the result of the university revolution of 1918 and its posteriors reforms by incorporating values that sought for a more equal and laic higher education system.

[edit] Organization

The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
Although each institution is organized differently, nearly all universities have a board of trustees; a president, chancellor, or rector; at least one vice president, vice-chancellor, or vice-rector; and deans of various divisions. Universities are generally divided into a number of academic departments, schools or faculties. Public university systems are ruled over by government-run higher education boards. They review financial requests and budget proposals and then allocate funds for each university in the system. They also approve new programs of instruction and cancel or make changes in existing programs. In addition, they plan for the further coordinated growth and development of the various institutions of higher education in the state or country. However, many public universities in the world have a considerable degree of financial, research and pedagogical autonomy. Private universities are privately funded and generally have a broader independence from state policies.
Despite the variable policies, or cultural and economic standards available in different geographical locations create a tremendous disparity between universities around the world and even inside a country, the universities are usually among the foremost research and advanced training providers in every society. Most universities not only offer courses in subjects ranging from the natural sciences, engineering, architecture or medicine, to sports sciences, social sciences, law or humanities, they also offer many amenities to their student population including a variety of places to eat, banks, bookshops, print shops, job centers, and bars. In addition, universities have a range of facilities like libraries, sports centers, students' unions, computer labs, and research laboratories. In a number of countries, major classic universities usually have their own botanical gardens, astronomical observatories, business incubators and university hospitals.

[edit] Universities around the world

The funding and organization of universities varies widely between different countries around the world. In some countries universities are predominantly funded by the state, while in others funding may come from donors or from fees which students attending the university must pay. In some countries the vast majority of students attend university in their local town, while in other countries universities attract students from all over the world, and may provide university accommodation for their students.[21]

[edit] Classification

Brooks Hall, home of the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, US
The definition of a university varies widely even within some countries. For example, there is no nationally standardized definition of the term in the United States although the term has traditionally been used to designate research institutions and was once reserved for research doctorate-granting institutions.[22] Some states, such as Massachusetts, will only grant a school "university status" if it grants at least two doctoral degrees.[23] In the United Kingdom, an institution can only use the term if it has been granted by the Privy Council, under the terms of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992.[24] In India, a new tag deemed universities was created a few years ago, by the cabinet minister Arjun Singh during his tenure as the Minister for Human Resource Development. Through this provision many universities sprung up in India, which are commercial in nature and have been established just to exploit the demand of higher education[25]

[edit] Colloquial usage

Colloquially, the term university may be used to describe a phase in one's life: "when I was at university..." (in the United States and Ireland, college is used instead: "when I was in college..."). See the college article for further discussion. In Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the German-speaking countries "university" is often contracted to "uni". In New Zealand and in South Africa it is sometimes called "varsity" (although this has become uncommon in New Zealand in recent years), which was also common usage in the UK in the 19th century.

[edit] Cost

Many students look to get 'student grants' in order to cover the cost of university. But with the funding given to university's looking to be considerably cut it seems the cost may be on the rise for students.

[edit] Religious and political control of universities

In some countries, in some political systems, universities are controlled by political or religious authorities who forbid certain fields of study or impose certain other fields. Sometimes national or racial limitations exist in the students that can be admitted, the faculty and staff that can be employed, and the research that can be conducted.

[edit] Nazi universities

Books from university libraries, written by anti-Nazi or Jewish authors, were burned in places (example: in Berlin) in 1933, and the curricula were subsequently modified. Jewish professors and students were expelled according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany (see also the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service). Martin Heidegger became the rector of University of Freiburg, where he delivered a number of Nazi speeches. On August 21, 1933 Heidegger established the Führer-principle at the university, later he was appointed Führer of Freiburg University. University of Poznań was closed by the Nazi Occupation in 1939. 1941–1944 a German university worked there. University of Strasbourg was transferred to Clermont-Ferrand and Reichsuniversität Straßburg existed 1941–1944.
Nazi universities ended in 1943.

[edit] See also

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The University of Liverpool, in common with all UK universities, is regulated and monitored by a government body, the QAA. Some UK universities have also been awarded a Royal Charter, which was granted to Liverpool in 1903.

Many countries, including the US and Canada, accept the standard of degrees awarded by UK universities as equivalent to their own.

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The biennial conference of the Institutional Management in Higher Education programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) took place in Paris from 13-15 September 2010. Entitled Higher Education in a World Changed Utterly: Doing more with less, the signature gathering investigated how, in the context of a global recession, higher education can lead the way to sustainable recovery.

There were more than 30 plenary speakers and some 60 presenters in parallel sessions. Discussions ranged across a wide variety of issues, from challenges facing higher education and how tertiary institutions and systems have responded to funding cuts to links between academia and industry, the use of technology and social engagement. Reflecting on the conference, its organiser Richard Yelland described a mood of “self-criticism, an acceptance that despite reform little fundamental change had been made, and that the university model – driven by aspiration to climb up the higher education value chain and amplified by rankings – was still undervaluing higher level vocational education and open and distance learning”.

University World News was a media partner to the conference, and a team of five journalists reported on it, led by Asia Editor Yojana Sharma. Live coverage was provided, a selection of articles were published afterwards, and this weekend’s Special Edition of the newspaper is devoted entirely to the OECD conference. Full details are available on the conference website.

GLOBAL: The train on platform 2010 is about to leave
Yojana Sharma
Nearly 470 people from 62 countries made the OECD's Institutional Management for Higher Education general conference this year its biggest ever. There was a strong turnout from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the US, while Latin America was also well represented, particularly Mexico and Brazil.

GLOBAL: Hot higher education issues

The global financial crisis means that higher education institutions "need to work smarter", said OECD Director for Education Barbara Ischinger, kicking off the three-day Institutional Management in Higher Education conference on 13 September. "We need to ensure institutions play to their strengths."

GLOBAL: Never mind quality, as universities expand
Yojana Sharma
The OECD's general conference, Higher Education in a World Changed Utterly: Doing more with less, identified one of the great challenges of expanding university systems: can higher education provide value while admitting more students and cutting back on spending in a recessionary climate? The problem is that no one knows how to measure the 'value' of higher education.

GLOBAL: The crisis, business and higher education
Lawrence J Speer
Joe Astroth wants to be a change agent. As chief education officer of US-based high-tech giant Autodesk, Astroth is playing a leading role in the company's continuing bid to create stronger links between industry and academia. It is a role he relishes. The global recession, Astroth said, has changed the environment facing businesses and universities alike. "The economic crisis has brought us together in an accelerated manner," he told University World News at the 2010 OECD higher education conference in Paris.

EUROPE: Students face 'new and sad reality'
Patricia Brett
Today's students do not want to "go down in history as the first generation of modern Europe that can expect to 'benefit' from fewer opportunities than the previous one," Bert Vandenkendelaere, chair of the European Students' Union, told the OECD higher education conference in Paris. Threatened by significant age wage gaps, high dropout rates, rampant graduate unemployment and limited support in starting a home or family, students fear their future may be bleaker than that of their parents.

GLOBAL: Technology and innovation in higher education
Patricia Brett
Innovative solutions are required to mitigate the budget cuts brought on by the current financial crisis, but innovation is not always synonymous with hi-tech, speakers told the OECD's 2010 higher education conference in Paris last month. The need to redress the bias of research to the detriment of teaching was a recurring theme, as was a call for greater social responsibility in producing well-informed, responsible citizens.

GLOBAL: Push towards innovative funding methods
Lawrence J Speer
Shrinking state budgets and financial shortfalls linked to the global recession are forcing universities to devise new means of raising revenue, notably through increased interaction with the private sector, according to participants at last month's OECD higher education conference in Paris.

US: Huge university 'doing more with less'
Alecia D McKenzie
When you meet California State University Chancellor Charles B Reed for the first time, you think you've met him before. It takes a few minutes to realise that Reed bears a striking resemblance to English actor Bob Hoskins. He has the same round appearance, direct gaze and pugilistic stance, as if he's ready to do battle. And it has been a battle over the past two years, as Reed has slashed costs at the university and deflected criticism and outcry as he tried to absorb a US$600 million blow in the form of state budget cuts.

UK: Run universities like supermarkets: consultant
Lawrence J Speer
A senior manager with the London-based strategy and insight consultancy SHM has suggested that universities and other higher education institutions be run like supermarkets. Paul Gillooly presented this provocative idea to an incredulous group of government officials and university leaders at the OECD's Institutional Management in Higher Education general conference in Paris in September.


ICELAND-IRELAND: Universities merge post-bubble
Yojana Sharma
Universities in Iceland and Ireland expanded dramatically during the 1990s boom, in part to promote regional development and absorb more students. But when the economic bubble burst, experts recommended a reduction in the overall number of institutions through painful mergers, as Denmark had already done.

RUSSIA-POLAND: Post-Soviet higher education challenges
Patricia Brett
"I'm not saying things were better under the Soviet Union, but there is definitely a problem with access to higher education in Russia," Tatiana Gounko, assistant professor at the University of Victoria in Canada, said at the OECD's Institutional Management in Higher Education conference held in Paris in September.

BAHAMAS: Development role for small island universities
Alecia D McKenzie
Small island states, which are increasingly vulnerable to global problems, need to have their universities play a stronger role in national development. "A small island nation has limited tools for driving its own development," said Janyne Hodder, former president of the College of the Bahamas and an administrative board member of the International Association of Universities, at the OECD's 2010 higher education conference, Higher Education in a World Changed Utterly: Doing more with less.

ISRAEL: Innovation lacking in universities
Lawrence J Speer
Israel may have transformed itself over the past decade into one of the world's vibrant economies, but innovation training is nonetheless sorely lacking in the nation's universities, according to Dr Milly Perry, director of the research authority at the Open University of Israel and CEO of OPMOP Ltd Technology Transfer Company.

JAPAN: Private spending on higher education rising
Suvendrini Kakuchi
Private spending on university education in Japan is high at 67.5%, according to a recent report released by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on public education investment in 28 member states. The OECD's Education at a Glance 2010 report indicated that the average for all nations was 30.9%, illustrating that in Japan private spending on higher education plays a vital role in supplementing low public funding.


GLOBAL: Benefits (and costs) of social engagement
Alecia D McKenzie
As universities face increasing budget cuts and see their ivory-tower image attacked, many now espouse increased involvement in community and global issues. But although this 'social engagement' drive has numerous supporters, others wonder at the cost and the long-term impact on universities, especially in the area of research.

GLOBAL: How higher education can help recovery
Mary-Louise Kearney and Richard Yelland*
Against the background of the most synchronised recession in developed countries in over half a century, the OECD's Institutional Management in Higher Education 2010 general conference focused on how the higher education sector - governments, institutions and individuals - can help contribute to sustainable recovery. Capitalising on the OECD's respected evidence base and drawing on analyses and opinions from some of the world's leading experts, the conference tried to identify ways to achieve higher quality outcomes at a time of increased demand and fewer resources, and examined innovative approaches to meeting the challenges of equity and efficiency.

GLOBAL: The big challenges for higher education
GLOBAL: The big challenges for higher education
The mood at the 2010 OECD higher education conference was more self-critical than complaining, according to Richard Yelland, head of the education management and infrastructure division in the organisation's education directorate. "Notwithstanding their good intentions, institutions and systems are not fulfilling their social responsibilities - to nurture research which will address pressing global issues, and equitable access to teaching which is relevant to the labour market and to society," he told University World News.

UK: Austerity challenging the values of universities
Karen MacGregor
Never before have universities faced such remarkable challenges to their fundamental values, said Professor Malcolm Grant, President and Provost of University College London, at the OECD higher education conference last month. During this time of austerity universities must continue to hold true to their values and take a long-term view, positioning themselves for 10 years' time "against the short-term turbulence of immediate change".

COMMENTARY: A view from the periphery
OECD: Conference shies away from long-term solutions
Tunde Fatunde
Many of the solutions proposed by participants in the OECD's Institutional Management in Higher Education conference were short term, palliative measures when the deepest crisis in higher education funding since the Second World War means the sector is in need of a kind of Marshall Plan to save it.

University World News is an online global higher education publication focusing on international higher education news and analysis, developments, events and announcements.

Issues covered by our world class writers include, among many other areas: international university rankings and league tables; globalisation and higher education research and analysis; international students; tertiary education systems, policies and reforms; higher education funding and liberalisation; academic posts and tenure; college accreditation; English language tuition; GATS and the Bologna Process. We are also working to highlight academic job opportunities, new academic posts, conferences and events, research grants, research jobs and further education news.

University World News is read by vice-chancellors and their deputies, professors and university managers, lecturers, higher education researchers and postgraduate students at universities and colleges worldwide, as well as by government policy-makers and officials and people working in higher education funding and advisory bodies, research councils, think tanks, donor agencies, and national and international organisations.

UIW Academics

At UIW you’ll learn from internationally-recognized faculty who are leaders in their fields. They don’t just impart knowledge; they create it and provide opportunities for you to work with them in pursuit of academic excellence. With these inspired thinkers as your guides, you’ll be motivated to engage your mind and explore new ideas. Achieve your goals and experience an atmosphere steeped in tradition and committed to academic excellence. Students at UIW experience an education through a global perspective, while undergoing an enriching spiritual voyage, all at a great value. Providing an affordable education is important to us. In fact, approximately 80 percent of UIW students receive some type of financial assistance.
At Incarnate Word, students enjoy small classes and a close network of family-like relationships between students and professors. With a remarkable student/faculty ratio of 14 to 1 and an average class size of 25, students build relationships that extend beyond the classroom and provide a solid foundation for their future. UIW professors understand the needs of individual students and are ready to help them tackle the issues affecting their community and the world. “The Universe is Yours” is not just our motto but a way of life at UIW. Through classroom learning, community service, internships, mentors, and nurturing faculty-student relationships, UIW is committed to shaping tomorrow’s leaders.
While at UIW, students enjoy a diversified curriculum and may choose from a variety of interesting and challenging majors. In addition to the traditional course offerings, UIW also
offers unique programs such as Theatre Arts, Fashion Design, Computer Graphic Arts, Nuclear Medicine, Nutrition, and Broadcast Meteorology. In all, Incarnate Word offers more than 70 undergraduate and graduate programs.

Bunaken: Breathtaking Underwater Life


Ever fancy yourself being a mermaid? Being able to swim along with other creatures of the sea , moving to the rhythm of the waves? In the Bunaken Marine Park, you will encounter a real “mermaid”, and you can also get a glimpse of sea life here.

Bunaken is an 8.08 km² island in the Bay of Manado, situated in the north of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bunaken forms part of the administrative city of Manado , capital of North Sulawesi. The marine Park around Bunaken is part of the  National Park that also includes the ocean around the island of  Manado Tua – or Old Manado, Siladen and Mantehage. 

Within the Bunaken Marine Park, visitors can see various strange and colourful marine life along its sea bed. To reach this park, you can take a motorboat. The journey from Manado takes around 40 minutes.  Entrance fee is 25,000 rupiahs per person per visit.

The translucent waters of the Bunaken seas enable people to clearly view numerous sea biota. There are 13 species of coral reefs in this park, dominated by edge ridges and block ridges of rocks. The most attractive view is the steep vertical sloppy coral reef that plunges down as deep as 25-50 meters.

Feast your eyes on 91 types of fish found in the Bunaken National Park, amongst which are the locally known gusimi horse fish (Hippocampus), the white oci (Seriola rivoliana), yellow-tailed lolosi (Lutjanus kasmira), goropa (Ephinephelus spilotoceps and Pseudanthias hypselosoma), ila gasi (Scolopsis bilineatus) and others.

Divers may also meet mollusk like the giant kima (Tridacna gigas), goat head (Cassis cornuta), nautilus (Nautilus pompillius) and tunikates/ascidian.

For those who enjoy scuba diving, this is a great place to be. With about 20 dive spots to choose from, divers will have the chance to swim below the sea, and frolic joyfully while admiring the sea creatures.

Make sure to visit Bunaken during its best season between May to August. That way you can explore the Park  to its fullest.


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"Be careful not to mix up words. Here are three you should be careful with. A site is a location like the site of a civil war battle or a web site. Sight means to see something. Cite is something you use when you write a paper and cite some reference. It's easy to mix these up, so be careful. "
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"You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can build up, and the first thing you know, you're out of time and out of luck. Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study habits."
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Paramus, New Jersey, USA
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Hyderabad, India
"If you want to remember information, you have to use it every way you can. Read it, say it, write it, and think about it."
Rosa Rosales
Student, 10th grade
Detroit, Michigan, USA